In this review, the effects of cannabinoids in the regulation of the following endocrine systems are discussed: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis. Cannabis users have reduced levels of gonadotropins, reduced prolactin and growth hormone. Cannabis affects corticotropin-releasing hormone-, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-, vasopressin-, and oxytocin-expressing neurons. Therefore, our findings reveal a mechanism of rapid glucocorticoid feedback inhibition of hypothalamic hormone secretion via endocannabinoid release in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and provide a link between the actions of glucocorticoids and cannabinoids in the hypothalamus that regulate stress and energy homeostasis. Glucocorticoid negative feedback in the brain controls stress, feeding, and neural-immune interactions by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Cannabis increases dopamine which decreases prolactin. Cannabis decreases oxytocin, thyroid hormone and growth hormone, and disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Cannabinoids suppress fertility via reducing hypothalamic gonadotropin- releasing hormone output. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor (GABA(A)-R)-mediated transmission is a major input to gonadotropin releasing hormone cells that can be excitatory. Cannabinoids act via inhibiting GABAergic input. Cannabis disregulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis circadian rhythm. Cannabis decreases serum concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins. Cannabis raises cortisol and ACTH which increases cortisol which uses up progesterone reducing testosterone and estrogen. Cannabis lowers testosterone in men by inhibiting testosterone secretion and impairs fertility in males through alteration in the testicular endocannabinoid system. Cannabis suppresses copulatory behavior even when testosterone levels are maintained. It decreases sperm concentration, causes defective sperm function or alteration of sperm morphology. Endocannabinoids control male reproduction acting at central and local level via cannabinoid receptors. The cannabinoid receptor CB1 has been characterized in the testis, in somatic and germ cells of mammalian and non-mammalian animal models, and its activity related to Leydig cell differentiation, steroidogenesis, spermiogenesis, sperm quality, and maturation. Testicular degeneration and necrosis is induced by chronic administration of cannabis. In both ovulating and menopausal women, cannabis can alter pituitary gonadotropin release and alter metabolism or target tissue response to gonadal steroids, leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Cannabis presents abnormal longer ovulatory cycle lengths in females. Cannabis suppresses luteinizing hormone when sex hormones are initially high, but, chronic cannabis lowers progesterone and testosterone in men, and lowers estrogen and progesterone in women, so luteinizing hormone significantly increases which raises night time core temperature for disrupted sleep. Cannabis increases hypothalamic nitric oxide which inhibits oxytocin. Cannabis is detrimental for lactating moms. Cannabis decreases maternal care, decreases aggressive instinctual behaviors for protection of young, suppresses maternal anxiolysis, decreases plasma oxytocin levels and milk consumption and decreases activation of oxytocinergic neurons in hypothalamic nuclei. Changes in the behavioral responses of lactating mothers treated with cannabis can be related to disruption in the neuroendocrine control of oxytocin secretion. Cannabis causes impairment of glucocorticoid feedback which either enhances or decreases performance on various tasks. Cannibis can cause a decrease in thyroid which negatively affects cerebellar development and motor performance involved in adult brain function. It induces consistent behavioral changes in adults, leading to severe anxiety and morphological changes in the hippocampus, however, it shows improvements for schizophrenia: improvement in cognitive function and reduction of antipsychotic-side. Cannabis and Δ(9) -THC are anticonvulsant in most animal models but can be proconvulsant in some healthy animals. The simultaneous rapid stimulation of nitric oxide and endocannabinoid synthesis by glucocorticoids has important implications for the impact of stress on the brain as well as on neural-immune interactions in the hypothalamus. Cannabis has implications for psychosis. There are blunted psychotomimetic and amnestic effects with cannabis. Lithium increases oxytocin and helps in cannabis withdrawal, and pregnenolone/progesterone help in cannabis withdrawal as estrogen generally increases and progesterone decreases sensitivity to marijuana.

As noted, CBD oil can help to both battle anxiety and to induce better mental clarity and focus. For those times at work when you need to be “on” and communicate clearly—say, during a stressful meeting or interaction with a superior—these effects work synergistically to help you stay calm, organize your thoughts and ultimately communicate in a successful way.


Hi Marilyn, I would recommend a topical lotion or salve to start for instant relief.. Maybe 250 to 300 mg tincture to see how you feel. For me, the salve took the pain in my hands away in under a minute. I didn't notice how much the tincture worked until I forgot to take on vacation. Pain that was pretty much gone but came back, I was tired, grumpy and felt horrible. It works, just need to find right product and dosage for you.

The CBD oil needs to be taken twice a day everyday. The dosage depends on symptoms and it takes 30 days to awken your natural cannabis system after you begin taking the oil. I personally use Hemp works CBD oil in the 750 strength and only need 5 drops sublingual 2 times daily and results are many. Problem with oil and alz.patients is getting them to hold oil under tongue for 60 seconds. We have just began to get my dad on it. He too is in a nursing home in the state of florida and they cannot deny him any medication my mom has requested that he receive. If she is not their they are supposed to administer and she will call them to make sure he gets it. He is not 30 days into dosing yet so I don't have any results to speak of. I do know that since he has started he has had no more bladder infection and has not fallen in 3 weeks. That's a record for him so we will continue to monitor. Best of luck to you and a lot is going to depend on the state your mom is in and what the state laws are concerning her rights or the rights of whom has her medical power of attorney
In the U.S., we live in a culture where more is often perceived as being better.  And it’s easy, without even thinking about it, to apply that approach to CBD dosing. But when it comes to CBD, more is not necessarily better. In fact, for many, less CBD is more effective. One way to determine your optimal dosage is to start with a small amount of CBD for a couple weeks and then slowly increase your dosage, carefully taking note of symptoms, until you’re seeing the results you want.

There’s also been a lot of talk lately about “microdosing” CBD. This refers to an incremental process of finding your minimum effective dose. You can do this with any concentration of CBD oil, but lower concentrations will take longer. In a 2017 article in Rolling Stone, Dr. Dustan Sulak outlines his protocol for microdosing. You can begin this process by asking yourself three questions:


Guzmán is a biochemist who’s studied cannabis for about 20 years. I visit him in his office at the Complutense University of Madrid, in a golden, graffiti-splotched building on a tree-lined boulevard. A handsome guy in his early 50s with blue eyes and shaggy brown hair tinged with gray, he speaks rapidly in a soft voice that makes a listener lean forward. “When the headline of a newspaper screams, ‘Brain Cancer Is Beaten With Cannabis!’ it is not true,” he says. “There are many claims on the Internet, but they are very, very weak.”

I have also called a couple places to get some input about what we may need, but they all said they cannot give advice. Then HOW do we know what to get. As for MOST of us, we are by no means well off. Quite the opposite, in fact. So to keep “trying” a bunch of different ones is not an option. Blue Bird in CO give discounts to low income, so would like to use their products if possible.
There's also the question of CBD's legality – something that's a lot grayer than the black-and-white picture most companies paint. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration considers CBD, like all cannabinoids, a schedule 1 drug. That means it's just as illegal as heroin and ecstasy. Meanwhile, hemp – a variety of the cannabis plant regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture – is legal , so long as its THC content is negligibly low. But because the agriculture department doesn't test for CBD – only THC – in hemp, more companies are getting away with selling products they say contain CBD, says Sara Jane Ward, an assistant professor of pharmacology at the Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine who's been studying CBD in rodent models for more than 10 years. Needless to say, the legality of CBD is "very confusing and very gray," she says.

The manufacturer will probably give you a recommended dosage, but bear in mind that this isn’t set in stone. What you need to find is your own minimum effective dose. “Minimum effective dose” is a medical term which refers to the amount of a substance you need for the results you want, and above which, the substance doesn’t increase in effectiveness.


Marijuana contains both THC and CBD, and typically, a plant has much more THC than CBD. Strains higher in CBD are being bred and cultivated for smoking, but the primary use of CBD is to extract it into an oil for medical use. While CBD is derived from marijuana, it is unlike THC in that it is not psychoactive. That is to say that it does not give a person the mind-altering “high” that THC is well-known for providing.
CBD concentrates typically contain the strongest dosage of CBD compared to any other CBD products. It can contain up to 10 times the average CBD products. Concentrates are also convenient in that it only takes a few seconds to consume. Overall, CBD concentrates seem to be most popular among customers who are extremely busy, yet seek high potency CBD.
Selfhacked – you guys always put out such create content!! This was such a great scientific-based explanations, and concise, actionable ways to take advantage of the benefits of this specific cannabinoid. My 100-lb mastiff’s life was saved by using RxCBD dog treats, and I know someone else who’s grandfather has now enjoyed an additional year of life beyond docs’ projections, seemingly due to their ‘Ginger Snap cookies’. I’m an evangelist for #rxcbd, and #cbd in general (obviously). So glad it’s legal in all 50 states, and I appreciate seeing people as awesome as selfhacked shining light on it. Good on you guys!!
Similarly, though CBD oil is technically illegal on the federal level, it is sold freely online and in stores even here in New Jersey. Erica McBride, executive director of the National Hemp Association in Washington, said there have been instances in states where pot hasn't been legalized where CBD oil was confiscated at the post office or people possessing it were arrested, but it's “very rare.”

Some industry insiders argue that organic, pharmaceutical-grade ethanol, which is a grain alcohol, is optimal and eliminates certain toxins and residues in the raw plant material itself. But others say that while this extraction method yields a high amount of cannabinoids and is GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) for human consumption, it destroys the plant’s waxes, leading to a less potent oil.


For relief of immediate symptoms, as in a flare-up of pain, vaporizing or smoking work well. The medication effect is immediate and lasts one to three hours, whereas most ingested products take thirty to sixty minutes before taking effect (faster on an empty stomach) and last six to eight hours. Vaporizers that use a cartridge filled with the CO2 concentrate are highly effective, and these are available in various ratios of CBD to THC. Herbal vaporizers that use the whole plant are also an effective delivery method. Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops also take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products.

Strength is also an extremely important consideration. Beginners may find that it’s easier to control dosage using a lower strength tincture. On the other hand, experienced CBD consumers know that high strength tinctures are more cost effective. Although stronger tinctures cost more, you get more CBD oil and other beneficial cannabinoids in each drop. Most CBD brands offer more than one option for strength.
Heart disease is a growing problem today. In fact, it’s the leading cause of death in the U.S. A healthy diet and lifestyle is a top priority for heart health, but CBD oil can also help. According to research cannabidiol reduces artery blockage, reduces stress induced cardiovascular response, and can reduce blood pressure. It may also reduce cholesterol.
Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range before going to the next, until symptoms subside. The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat depression. Vaporized or smoked cannabis is recommended for relief of immediate symptoms, or a boost in dosage, and it can also be useful for sleep issues. Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products.
So what is it, then, that makes one CBD oil online store different from the next? In all truthfulness, from a superficial perspective there is little that separates one CBD store or CBD oil brand from another. As long as the company claims things like high-quality CO2 extraction, verified lab-testing, organic raw material sourcing, etc, it would appear from the outside that the only real difference from brand to brand lies in price variation.
Leonard Leinow has three decades of experience growing and studying medical cannabis and brings a unique spiritual perspective to his work. In 2009, he formed Synergy Wellness, a not-for-profit medical cannabis collective in California. Synergy Wellness has over 3,500 members in its collective and is an artisan organization making hand-crafted organic and natural whole plant-based products. They are specialists in CBD (cannabidiol), the non-psychoactive portion of cannabis, and are pioneers in this aspect of the industry. Leinow is known for his proprietary blends of tinctures and medicine used for cancer and epilepsy patients.
In a study, 24 smoker subjects, who were randomly selected to receive either placebo or a Cannabidiol inhaler, were asked to take a puff from their inhaler each time they craved to smoke. The subjects were included on the basis of >10 cigarette consumption a day, who wished to quit this habit. They were devoid of any history of psychiatric illness or physical health issue. Observations revealed that those subjects who took cannabidiol inhaler experienced a 40 percent reduction in their cigarette consumption, whereas those who were on placebo underwent no change.
Of course, the easiest solution, advocates say, is for the federal government to legalize cannabis completely. If cannabis were legalized—the whole plant and all its extracts, no confusing singling-out of specific compounds or anatomical features—then U.S. drug companies would be able to carefully cultivate and research its medicinal properties, and submit their findings to regulatory bodies like the FDA for trials and approval.
The Cannabis Health Index (CHI) is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis (in general, not just CBD effects) and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data. Refer to cannabishealthindex.com for updated information. Using this rubric and based on twenty-one studies, cannabis rated in the possible-to-probable range of efficacy for treatment of depression.
Cannabis has been used medicinally for centuries, as a sleep aid, a pain and nausea reducer, to relieve anxiety and other mood problems. In the mid-1960s, scientists identified the first cannabinoid. Since then, scientists have gone on to identify more than 80 individual cannabinoids and continue to investigate them for their potential symptom-relieving and disease-fighting abilities.
No medication seemed to provide a great deal of relief for Harper’s symptoms. But in 2013, three years after their trip to Boston, Penny and Dustin caught an installment of CNN’s medical marijuana documentary and began researching what they could obtain in Texas, where medical marijuana is illegal. Their internet searches soon led them to HempMedsPx and Real Scientific Hemp Oil. The company sent Penny a vial of hemp oil, which she administered to Harper that September.
I just started taking CBD oil , I am on my 2nd Hip replacement surgery due to device failures looking at a 3rd surgery. Has you can imagine the pain, stress and anxiety levels are off the charts. Especially at an otherwise healthy 54 yr women. So i understand from reading posts its best to take it under the tongue. I am taking 1-2 ml a day. I can tell some difference,is your recommended dosage. I am using for pain , stress and sleep. I appreciate your feedback.
Many users of CBD oil have reported a number of benefits to adding the supplement to their daily lives. From experiencing feelings of calm and relaxation to assisting in the relief of some symptoms associated with chronic illness, anxiety, and inflammation, CBD oil is certainly earning its fast-growing reputation as a powerful support for wellness.
While researchers are calling for more robust studies on the role of CBD on mood disorders, there is promising research that points to CBD’s role as an anxiolytic – which means it has anti-anxiety effects. Another study showed CBD to have antidepressant effects comparable to those of the prescription antidepressant Imipramine. We noted above that CBD increases levels of glutamate and serotonin – and it’s these same neurotransmitters that play a crucial role in mood regulation.
The body of research on cannabidiol, CBD oil benefits, THC, and other cannabinoids has grown exponentially in the past decade. The following brings together the latest scientific studies and stories from patients and doctors with advice on treating specific symptoms. It also includes dosage suggestions and information on recommended types of cannabinoid-based medicines for the particular condition.
In other words, many popular claims remain unfounded – and overlook the fact that there's a difference between CBD that's studied in labs for particular conditions and CBD products that are sold to consumers for general well-being. "What happens is people say, 'Look, CBD is harmless and it doesn't get me intoxicated, so I'm going to take it for what ails me," says Dr. Jordan Tishler, a Harvard physician and CEO of InhaleMD, a Boston-area practice specializing in cannabis therapeutics. "Then they're going to get some perceived benefit because that's the way the placebo effect works, and then they go and trumpet this."
I have idiopathic peripheral neuropathy ... the only thing they found that would work is lyrica. I picked up some CBD oil yesterday morning. I am prescribed to take 75 mg of lyrica 3x per day. I took one yesterday morning and have only used the CBD oil since. I bought the Koi brand, flavored, 250 MG. I used a full dropper yesterday late morning and a full dropper yesterday late afternoon. I used it once today (one full dropper) and I am amazingly pain free.

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Medical Disclaimer: Statements in any video or written content on this site have not been evaluated by the FDA. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medications, or have a medical condition, consult your physician before using this product. Representations regarding the efficacy and safety of CBD oil have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA only evaluates foods and drugs, not supplements like these products. These products are not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat, or cure any disease. The material on this site is provided for informational purposes only and is not medical advice. Always consult your physician before beginning any supplement program.

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