In this review, the effects of cannabinoids in the regulation of the following endocrine systems are discussed: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis. Cannabis users have reduced levels of gonadotropins, reduced prolactin and growth hormone. Cannabis affects corticotropin-releasing hormone-, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-, vasopressin-, and oxytocin-expressing neurons. Therefore, our findings reveal a mechanism of rapid glucocorticoid feedback inhibition of hypothalamic hormone secretion via endocannabinoid release in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and provide a link between the actions of glucocorticoids and cannabinoids in the hypothalamus that regulate stress and energy homeostasis. Glucocorticoid negative feedback in the brain controls stress, feeding, and neural-immune interactions by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Cannabis increases dopamine which decreases prolactin. Cannabis decreases oxytocin, thyroid hormone and growth hormone, and disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Cannabinoids suppress fertility via reducing hypothalamic gonadotropin- releasing hormone output. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor (GABA(A)-R)-mediated transmission is a major input to gonadotropin releasing hormone cells that can be excitatory. Cannabinoids act via inhibiting GABAergic input. Cannabis disregulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis circadian rhythm. Cannabis decreases serum concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins. Cannabis raises cortisol and ACTH which increases cortisol which uses up progesterone reducing testosterone and estrogen. Cannabis lowers testosterone in men by inhibiting testosterone secretion and impairs fertility in males through alteration in the testicular endocannabinoid system. Cannabis suppresses copulatory behavior even when testosterone levels are maintained. It decreases sperm concentration, causes defective sperm function or alteration of sperm morphology. Endocannabinoids control male reproduction acting at central and local level via cannabinoid receptors. The cannabinoid receptor CB1 has been characterized in the testis, in somatic and germ cells of mammalian and non-mammalian animal models, and its activity related to Leydig cell differentiation, steroidogenesis, spermiogenesis, sperm quality, and maturation. Testicular degeneration and necrosis is induced by chronic administration of cannabis. In both ovulating and menopausal women, cannabis can alter pituitary gonadotropin release and alter metabolism or target tissue response to gonadal steroids, leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Cannabis presents abnormal longer ovulatory cycle lengths in females. Cannabis suppresses luteinizing hormone when sex hormones are initially high, but, chronic cannabis lowers progesterone and testosterone in men, and lowers estrogen and progesterone in women, so luteinizing hormone significantly increases which raises night time core temperature for disrupted sleep. Cannabis increases hypothalamic nitric oxide which inhibits oxytocin. Cannabis is detrimental for lactating moms. Cannabis decreases maternal care, decreases aggressive instinctual behaviors for protection of young, suppresses maternal anxiolysis, decreases plasma oxytocin levels and milk consumption and decreases activation of oxytocinergic neurons in hypothalamic nuclei. Changes in the behavioral responses of lactating mothers treated with cannabis can be related to disruption in the neuroendocrine control of oxytocin secretion. Cannabis causes impairment of glucocorticoid feedback which either enhances or decreases performance on various tasks. Cannibis can cause a decrease in thyroid which negatively affects cerebellar development and motor performance involved in adult brain function. It induces consistent behavioral changes in adults, leading to severe anxiety and morphological changes in the hippocampus, however, it shows improvements for schizophrenia: improvement in cognitive function and reduction of antipsychotic-side. Cannabis and Δ(9) -THC are anticonvulsant in most animal models but can be proconvulsant in some healthy animals. The simultaneous rapid stimulation of nitric oxide and endocannabinoid synthesis by glucocorticoids has important implications for the impact of stress on the brain as well as on neural-immune interactions in the hypothalamus. Cannabis has implications for psychosis. There are blunted psychotomimetic and amnestic effects with cannabis. Lithium increases oxytocin and helps in cannabis withdrawal, and pregnenolone/progesterone help in cannabis withdrawal as estrogen generally increases and progesterone decreases sensitivity to marijuana.
Jump up ^ Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Nozako M, Ogata A, Hazekawa M, Liu AX, Fujioka M, Abe K, Hasebe N, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (March 2007). "Repeated treatment with cannabidiol but not Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance". Neuropharmacology. 52 (4): 1079–87. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2006.11.005. PMID 17320118.
Have you heard about CBD oil for sleep issues? If you're looking to catch up on some zzz's, or you're fighting a legitimate bout of insomnia, CBD may be able to help you fall—and stay—asleep. Some smaller studies have shown that CBD at bedtime could improve sleep, and a study on rats in 2013 showed that CBD increased total sleep time. That said, Jordan Tishler, M.D., noted that the rat study found "at high doses, CBD can cause insomnia and jitteriness"—so do your research on the appropriate dosage for each product before you go overboard. (Related: Can CBD Products Help You Sleep Better?)
What’s more, CBD vape oils require additional equipment. In order to transform the oil into vapor, you’ll need an e-pen or vaporizer. This means an extra investment on top of the vape oil itself. I therefore recommend that, if you’re a first-time user, you try a more accessible and affordable CBD product type to make sure it’s the right supplement for you, before graduating to vape oil.
This is a common question and misconception. As mentioned above, while they come from the same plant, they are different strains and CBD is harvested from the plants that contain no THC (or negligible levels). CBD is completely legal and is not considered a drug. Because of the often confused history of these plants, many manufacturers use “hemp oil” instead of the more controversial “CBD oil” in their marketing. CBD levels can vary drastically based on manufacturing, so it is important to find a high quality manufacturer with verified levels.

Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2013 – Amends the Controlled Substances Act to exclude industrial hemp from the definition of “marihuana.” Defines “industrial hemp” to mean the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of such plant, whether growing or not, with a delta-nine tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis. Deems Cannabis sativa L. to meet that concentration limit if a person grows or processes it for purposes of making industrial hemp in accordance with state law. ~ https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/525


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Stephanie, generally, I have patients take 20 to 150mg a day for sleep +/- anxiety. Start low and go slow. Know the dosages of your product. Usually 2/3 to 3/4 of the daily dose is 1-2 hours before bedtime, and the other portion is upon waking (to improve wakefulness during the day). Other factors such as stress, hormone replacement, other meds & medical conditions, etc. play a role along with individual differences. I own a compounding pharmacy, so we see a lot of unique needs. I can't give more specific advice in this forum, but there is help!
Herrera and her patients aren't the only ones doling out rave reviews for CBD oil, which can be found online and in cannabis dispensaries, as well as in some grocery stores and even as an optional add-in alongside protein powder at your local juice chain. The oil has been riding the coattails of the growing legal cannabis industry, with one industry expert, Matt Karnes, telling Forbes in 2016 that he expected CBD products to become an almost $3 billion market by 2021.
Although cannabis can be used to make marijuana, CBD itself is non-psychoactive—meaning that it doesn’t get you high the way smoking or eating cannabis-related products containing THC (the plant's psychoactive compound) can. Still, there’s a lot doctors don’t know about CBD and its effects on the body, and a lot consumers should understand before trying it.
The cost of treatment varies: Depending on the dispensary and the dosage, it can range from around $100 a month to more than $1,000. Despite the cost, which is not covered by insurance, CBD medicines are drawing great interest for children with severe, intractable epilepsy. California and Colorado, which were among the first states to legalize medical marijuana, have become hot spots for such patients. Before other states legalized medicinal CBD use, some families moved to these states so they could have access to the compound.
CBD may help reduces REM behavior disorder in people with Parkinson’s disease. REM behavior disorder is a condition that causes people to act out physically during dreaming and REM sleep. Typically, during REM, the body is largely paralyzed, a state known as REM atonia. This immobilization keeps sleepers from reacting physically to their dreams. In REM behavior disorder, this paralysis doesn’t occur, leaving people free to move—which can lead to disruptive sleep and to injuring themselves or their sleeping partners. Cannabis may also work to reduce pain and improve sleep quality in people with Parkinson’s disease.

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